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WSU Tree Fruit

BMPs for tree removal for X disease and Little Cherry Virus infected trees

Fig. 1. Apply glyphosate within five minutes to the cambium layer just under the bark.

Written by Tianna DuPont, WSU Extension. Aug 21, 2019

Sampling and removal of infected trees is critical to slowing the current outbreak of Western X and Little Cherry Virus. Infected trees can not be cured. The disease is spread throughout the tree even when symptoms are obvious only in one section. Infected trees must be removed. Any infected trees that remain in the orchard are a reservoir of disease for your orchard and your neighbor’s.

Little Cherry Disease is caused by a virus Little Cherry Virus 1 and 2 or a phytoplasma called Western X. In addition to insect vectors, root grafting can move the disease from tree to tree and threatens new infections in replacement trees. When removing infected trees apply an herbicide to kill the roots which then can no longer infect new roots via root grafting.

Treat the interface of the bark with the wood, the area called the cambium or sapwood (the outer ring of wood, next to and including the bark) (Figure 1). This is the living part of the tree which moves water and nutrients and will be most likely to move the herbicide. Treat when the tree is actively growing. Herbicide must be applied immediately after cutting.

Image shows Glyphosate being applied to the top of a stump using either a paint brush or using a hand-held sprayer.
Fig. 2. Glyphosate can be applied with a sprayer or paint brush.

Multiple glyphosate labels allow application in stone fruit and as a ‘cut stump treatment’ (eg Glystar pg 29, Buccaneer pg 24). Check your glyphosate label. Most labels say to apply a 50 (mixed with water) to 100% solution of the glyphosate product. Applications can be made with a small hand/backsprayer or a paint brush to fully cover the entire cambium (Figure 2). Some labels also allow a frill/injection application (eg Glyphosate 4DS pg 28) (Figure 3). A hatchet, chainsaw or drill can be used to notch the tree. The notch/drill holes need to extend into the living tissue in the cambium but do not need to extend deep into the heartwood. A 50 to 100% glyphosate concentration is applied at the equivalent of 1 ml per 2-3 inches of trunk (Glyphosate 4DS). Follow your label’s directions.

Currently a research collaboration between WSU, GS Long and the Washington State Tree Fruit Research Commission is investigating most appropriate rates, timings and products and we will share new information as soon as it is available.

Removal of infected trees is critical to successful management of this disease. Be aggressive.

For more information

Little Cherry Virus

X-Disease Phytoplasma (Western X)

Grape Mealy Bug

Apple Mealy Bug

X-Disease and Little Cherry Virus Scouting and Sampling

X-Disease and Little Cherry Virus Scouting and Sampling Guide

Western X Questions and Answers: What do we know? What do we not know?

Another Bad Year for Little Cherry Disease

Little Cherry Disease Eligible for Tree Assistance Program

LCD Task Force Rolls Out New Online Form to Streamline Testing


Tianna DuPont

(509) 293-8758


Scott Harper, Department of Plant Pathology, Washington State University, 509-786-9230 or

Bernardita Sallato, WSU Extension (509) 439-8542

Ashley Thomson, OSU Extension (541) 296-5494

Karen Lewis, WSU Extension (509) 760-2263

Fruit Matters articles may only be republished with prior author permission © Washington State University. Reprint articles with permission must include: Originally published by Washington State Tree Fruit Extension Fruit Matters at and a link to the original article.