X-disease Symptoms in Other Stone Fruits
In peaches, plums, nectarines and apricots, X-disease can cause yellowing, curling, and small holes in leaves, called shothole, as well as small, deformed fruit.
X-disease phytoplasma in nectarine. Note the curled, yellow leaves (center) that appear only on the affected branch. Photo credit T. DuPont, WSU Extension.
Confirmation of any of these pathogens is done through molecular testing.
1. Take four 5-inch cuttings from symptomatic limbs with leaves, stems and fruit.
2. Make sure samples are clearly labeled with location or name, variety, and date. Include sample numbers if you are submitting multiple samples at once.
3. Keep tissue moist and cool (e.g. package with a cold pack)
4. Send to a lab for molecular testing. Go to http://treefruit.wsu.edu/crop-protection/disease-management/little-cherry-disease/ for a list of labs.
Cody Molnar, WSU Extension ITT Coordinator
There is no cure for little cherry and an infected tree will remain infected for the rest of its life. Symptoms will continue to worsen until most or all of the tree is affected. There are no treatments or products that have been shown to ’cure’ the phytoplasma or the virus.
Remove infected trees! Infected trees are a source of disease for the whole neighborhood and must be removed. Removing affected branches does not appear to reduce or eliminate the disease.
Use Pathogen-Free Planting Sources: Trees must be obtained from pathogen-free planting stock. Nursery trees can be free of symptoms and still be infected.
Control of this disease requires a community-wide effort. What your neighbor does or doesn’t do, affects you (and vice versa). Prompt removal of infected trees is the only way to stop the spread of these diseases.
- Little Cherry Disease
- X-disease Phytoplasma (Western-X)
- Jelkmann and Eastwell (2011) Little cherry virus-1 and -2. In: Virus and virus-like diseases of pome and stone fruits. APS Press, Minnesota, MN. Hort. 1058: 121-128.
- Bixby-Brosi, AJ, E Beers. 2017. Chemical control of grape mealybug, 2016. Arthropod Management Tests. 42 (1).
- Bixby-Brosi, AJ, E Beers. 2015. Chemical control of apple mealybug, 2014. Arthropod Management Tests. 40 (1).
- UCIPM 2015. Cherry Leafhopper, Fieberiella florii. Grant, J.A., Caprile, J.L., Coates, W.W., Van Steenwyk, R.A., Daane, K.M.
- UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Cherry. UC ANR Publication 3440.
- Van Steenwyk, R.A., Havens, D.M., Freeman, R. 1990. Evaluation of Trap Types for Two Vectors of Western X Disease: Colladonus montanus and Fieberiella florri. Journal of Economic Entomology. 83: pg 2279
- Purcell, A.H., Elkinton, J. 1980. A Comparison of Sampling Methods for Leafhopper Vectors of X Disease in California Cherry Orchards. Journal of Economic Entomology 73: 854-880.
- Purcell, A.H. 1987. Buckskin Disease of Cherry. California Agriculture.