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Rotator Index for Defects, Disorders, Diseases

This Index page serves as quick links to the 360-rotator images for common defects, disorders, and diseases found in apples. The list is organized alphabetically under subcategories for each major section. Rotators contain one or more fruit in a way that allows the viewer to turn the image around to see multiple examples of the various conditions exhibited. There are also pop-up captions with explanatory descriptions.

Acknowledgment: The 360-rotators are the result of a collaborative project between WSU Tree Fruit Extension (WSU TFE), the Washington Tree Fruit Research Commission (WTFRC), and The Good Fruit Grower (GFG).
Lead personnel: Rob Blakey (formerly WSU TFE), Ines Hanrahan (WTFRC), and TJ Mullinex (GFG).
Technical assistance: Matthew Ziegler (WSU CAHNRS Communications) and Wendy Jones (WSU TFE).

WSU-TFE, GFG, WTFRC logo image

Instructions: To view a 360-rotator, click on the thumbnail image or its caption to open that image viewer. Once the viewer opens you can rotate the image using the arrows or by dragging the image. You can also choose to view in full-screen mode.

Table of Contents

Major sections:

Defects Includes defects caused by chemicals (burns), mechanical injury, miscellaneous issues (cracking, deformities, etc.), and russeting.

Environmental Damage/Disorders includes heat and freezing damage, sunburn related disorders, and rain cracking

Physiological Disorders Includes disorders that arise pre- and post-harvest.

Postharvest Diseases Includes the many postharvest diseases.

Pests Includes bird and insect damage


Burns, insect feeding, mechanical damage, miscellaneous, various russets


Calcium, CO2 and DPA

Calcium Burn rotator showing this defect on multiple varieties and comparing with other similar defects.
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Injury: External damage on Honeycrisp.
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Injury: Internal damage in Red Delicious.
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Injury: External snowflake pattern on Golden Delicious.
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) External Injury: Wormy pattern on Red Delicious.
DPA Burn on Gala.

Mechanical Damage

Bin scuffing, Clipper damage, Compression bruising, Impact bruising, Limb rub, Pruning damage, Stem puncture

Bin Scuffing shown on Red Delicious and Granny Smith.
bin scuffing, red delicious
Bin Scuffing shown on Red Delicious.
Clipper Damage shown on Honeycrisp.
Compression Bruising on Cripps Pink.
External Impact Bruising on multiple varieties.
Internal Impact Bruising in Braeburn.
Limb Rub shown on Gala.
Mechanical Pruning Damage shown on Granny Smith.
 Stem Punctures shown on Gala.

Miscellaneous Defects

Cracking on shoulder, Cracking at stem bowl, Chimera, Deformed stems, Shrivel, Suture line, Wandering sepal

Cracking – Shoulder shown on Honeycrisp.
Cracking – Stem Bowl shown on Gala.
Chimera shown on Red Delicious.
Deformed Stems shown on various varieties.
Shrivel shown on multiple varieties.
Suture Line shown on Ambrosia and Gala.
Wandering Sepal shown on Gala.


Early season frost, Fuji flecking, Powdery mildew, Stem bowl & shoulder russet, Side russet

Early Season Frost Russet shown on Gala.
Fuji Flecking, a specific type of russet found on Fuji.
Powdery Mildew on Red Delicious
Stem bowl and Shoulder Russet shown on various varieties.
Side Russet shown on Fuji.

Environmental Related Issues

Freezing, Heat & Sun, Misc.


External freezing damage, External freezing damage

External damage caused by freezing.
Internal damage caused by freezing.

Heat related

Hot summer stress disorder and Water soaking heat stress

Summer heat stress disorder
Heat Stress Water Soaking


Browning, Cracking, Necrosis, Photo-oxidation, In-Bin sunburn

 Sunburn Browning
Sunburn Cracking
Sunburn Necrosis
Photo-oxidative Sunburn
In-Bin Sunburn

Physiological Disorders

Bitter pit, Blister spot, Blotch spot, Drought spot, Fuji stain, Soft scald, Soggy breakdown, Superficial scald, and Water core

Bitter Pit: External Symptoms
Blister Spot
blotch pit external symptoms
Blotch Pit: External Symptoms
Blotch Pit: Internal Symptoms
Drought Spot
Fuji Stain is a russeting or discoloration found on Fuji.
Soft Scald: External Symptoms
Soft Scald: Internal Symptoms
Soggy Breakdown – External Symptoms
Soggy Breakdown – Internal Symptoms
Soggy Breakdown: Severe Internal Symptoms
Superficial Scald in Granny Smith
 Superficial Scald in Red Delicious
Internal Watercore Symptoms


Blue mold, Gray mold, and Phacidiopycnis-Speck rot

Blue Mold: External symptoms shown on Honeycrisp
Blue Mold: Internal symptoms shown on Honeycrisp
Gray Mold: External symptoms shown on Cripps Pink
Phacidiopycnis Rot – Speck Rot symptoms shown on Golden Delicious


Birds and Insects

Bird feeding damage
Bird Feces
Codling moth: External damage
Codling Moth: Internal damage on Cripps Pink
Campylomma Damage
Cutworm/Armyworm Damage
Earwig Damage on Honeycrisp
Leafroller Damage
Lygus bug damage
San Jose Scale
Thrips – Pansy Spot
Washington State University