Knowing the fundamentals of codling moth biology, pheromone traps, and models is critical for implementing control tactics. The science must be understood to implement the practices and adjust controls.
Successful IPM programs integrate control tactics and are flexible enough to adjust for seasonal changes in pest and beneficial insect populations. The most stable IPM programs take a multi-tactic approach, utilizing as many pillars of control as possible. IPM programs that don’t follow this strategy lead to programs that become inherently variable in performance.